U razdoblju 15. i 16. stoljeća, vremenu koje nazivamo zlatnim dobom Dubrovačke Republike, ostalo je skriveno mnogo nepoznanica o glazbeno – umjetničkom životu Dubrovnika. Ipak, sačuvani su neki dokazi koji svjedoče o razvoju i ostvarajima dubrovačke glazbene prakse koja je cvjetala u neposrednom dodiru sa središtem europske renesanse Italijom. Crkvena glazba razvijala se u okviru katedralnih škola zasebno od glazbe svjetovnog karaktera u kojoj dolazi do postepene profesionalizacije svirača okupljenih pri Kneževoj kapeli. Na crkvenu i svjetovnu glazbu snažano je utjecala i živa lokalna folklorna tradicija. Prilika za muziciranje u renesansnom Dubrovniku zasigurno je bilo mnogo, u okviru državnog ceremonijala kao i tijekom brojnih neformalnih okupljanja. Uvidom u sačuvanu arhivsku građu koja je preživjela „veliku trešnju” 1667. godine, u ovom radu smo pokušali dati pregled glazbenih ostvarenja dubrovačke renesansne instrumentalne i vokalne glazbe, pregled dubrovačkih glazbenika i skladatelja kao i opseg poznatog instrumentarija.
|Abstract (english)|| |
The Golden Age of Dubrovnik Republic happened during the 15th and 16th century. During that period Dubrovnik has managed to expand its area and influence, while maintaining its freedom and independence. Significant economical strength acquired especially through maritime affairs and trade with Balkan hinterland, which was under the protection of the Ottoman Empire, has had an extremely positive effect on the development of cultural creativity. Besides the growing prosperity, the vicinity of Italy, the cultural centre of the Renaissance movement, has also left its mark on the development of literature, science, art, music and crafts. The development of music in Dubrovnik, as much as instrumental and vocal, is extremely difficult to follow due to the lack of archival evidence which was mostly destroyed during the big earthquake in 1667. Luckily, large amount of literature pieces survived this catastrophy and can now witness what music life in Dubrovnik in the 15th and 16th century looked like. Miho Demović did significant amount of work in this field and he has come to certain conclusions which are discussed in this work. To begin with he noticed that the medieval division on church and secular music was preserved. Therefore, the development of church music had its own separate way in relation to secular music. The church music was developed in cathedral schools where priests performed mostly a cappella choir music but also music with accompaniment (mostly in Dominican order). When talking about instrumental music, Demović has emphasized the role of organ as the most dominant instrument which required high playing skills and good knowledge of musical theory. Since Dubrovnik was considered to be an open town, it also attracted foreign artists who influenced and improved vocal and instrumental church music, especially Couroys family. On the other hand, the company of musicians gathered together in Kneževa kapela, sponsored by the government, performed mostly secular music but it also participated in church festivities and fairs. There were two types of musicians working in Kneževa kapela – piffari who received the full salary as full members of the Chapel, and brass instrument players (especially trumpet players) and drummers. The first group of musicians could live entirely out of their artistic and musical competence, while the other group mostly participated in those situations when music had entirely functional purposes, such as city guard and similar. Nella Lonza emphasized the importance of official situations and the role of music in them since its main purpose was to represent the government and the Republic itself. Even though the music was a nice way to present the official government matters, it also played an important role in everyday life. Music was performed (by wide range of different musical instruments joined in ansambles) in various situations starting from the church holidays, official happenings, weddings and parties, during the execution of death sentence and funerals or randomly on the streets. Its deep bond with dance and literature, high or folk style, has always given it new impulses and inspiration so it was always composed all over again although we may not have enough evidence which can prove it today.