Štovanje rimskih careva i njihovih obitelji vuče svoje podrijetlo iz dvije tradicije koje su se međusobno isprepletale. Prva je ona starija, orijentalna, koja seže do pojma vladara- boga u civilizacijama Egipta i Mezopotamije. Taj koncept teokracije se prebacuje na perzijsku državu a preko djelovanja Aleksandra Velikog ulazi u grčki svijet i na taj način stvara helenističku civilizaciju. Kako se rimska država sve više širi na Istok, njeni vojskovođe dolaze u doticaj s tim idejama i počinju prihvaćati počasti jednake onima koji su se davali bogovima. Taj proces kulminira Cezarovom uspostavom vlasti i ideje o njegovom božanskom podrijetlu i statusu boga nakon smrti, što prihvaća i prvi car August i carevi nakon njega (doduše ne svi). Paralelno s tim događajima, Enona, kao jedan od liburnskih centara, počinje proces uključivanja u rimsku državu. Neke municipalne forme dobiva za Augusta, građansko pravo za svoje stanovnike vjerovatno za Tiberija a tada se grade i urbanistički sadržaji: zidine, gradska vrata, most, akvedukt. Za flavijevske dinastije Enona dobija svoj kapitolijski hram, koji je zamišljen kao hram posvećen kapitolijskoj Trijadi no tokom gradnje ili malo nakon završetka dobiva karakter Augusteuma, građevine za opsluživanje carskog kulta. To je dokazano obiljem carskih statua i epigrafskim natpisima koji spominju članove kolegija Augustala. Hram je arhitektonski bio prostil heksastil (ustvari varijanta pseudoperiptera, gdje su bočni stupovi uključeni u ziđe). Na njegovom mjestu je ranije, u Augustovo doba, bio podignut manji hram, prostil tetrastil s četiri stupa na pročelju. Grupe statua imperatora su vjerovatno stajale na forumu; neke su mogle i u nišama hrama no to je malo vjerovatno. Početna grupa je proširena barem dva puta. Očuvana je glava Marka Agripe, što možda sugerira i grupu iz Augustova vremena koja bi uključivala Augusta, Agripu i njegovu djecu (prijestolonasljednike). Najbrojnija grupa je iz Tiberijeva vremena, sadrži diviniziranog Augusta, možda diviniziranog Cezara, zatim Tiberija kao augura te ostale članove carske obitelji, pretedente na prijestolje; vjerovatno Druza Mlađeg i Germanika, možda i njihovu djecu i žene. Skupinu je vjerovatno inaugurirao namjesnik provincije i patron Enone Lucije Volusije Saturnin. Za dinastije Flavijevaca gradi se monumentalni hram i dolazi do nove skupine carskih portreta; nađene su glava Vespazijana i glava cara Nerve prerađena od Domicijanova portreta.
|Abstract (english)|| |
Two traditions, mutually interwoven, formed the basis for the development of the Roman imperial cult. Ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia were roots from which the older, Oriental tradition came to be. Ideas of ruler- god and theocracy entered the Hellenic world through Persian Empire and its conquest by the hand of Alexander the Great; such series of events formed a new, Hellenistic civilization. Cults of the living and deceased rulers were established by Diadochi, heirs and rulers of the shattered Alexander's empire. By conquering the east of the Mediterranean, Roman generals came across these types of worship and began to accept honors equal to those given to the gods. This process reached its peak in Ceasar's supremacy in the Roman state and his proclamation of him being god after he died. Assasination of Caesar proved just how dangerous a direct association or equation with the gods was in Rome. His successor Octavian, later emperor Augustus, therefore proclaimed himself as a divine heir of Caesar and a person who possesses divine power but is not god on Earth yet. He will reach his status as a deity once he is dead. This concept was also accepted by many other emperors. During these events, one of the Liburnian centers on the Eastern Adriatic coast, ancient Aenona, started its journey of acceptance of its community into the frames of Roman state. Process was taking place at the crucial point of forming the Roman imperial cult. In the age of Augustus, Aenona already owns some forms of municipality, such as the city council. Most probably at the time of rule of emperor Tiberius, inhabitants of Aenona received Roman citizenship. During the rule of the Flavian dynasty, the Capitoline temple was built in the city. During its construction, or immediately afterwards, temple changed its character and was used for worship of Roman emperors and members of their families; it became an Augusteum. Since it was constructed primarily as a Capitolium, it had features characteristic of such temples. According to architect Vitruvius, those features were high podium, cella divided in three parts and the highest point in town. But the character of the worship was changed which is proved by imperial statues and portraits as well as inscriptions that mention a collegium of priest designated to serve the imperial cult (sexviri
Augustales). There was also a minor temple (tetrastylum) which stood at the place of more recent one (built during the rule of the Flavians). It was constructed in the age of Augustus. I argue that it served for the worship of Capitoline Triad, since there is no inscription that would designate this shrine to be a temple of Roma and Augustus. Groups of imperial statues were formed here too. Initial group was extended at least two times. Head of Marcus Agrippa was found but it is not substantial evidence of a group of imperial statues at the age of Augustus. However, if there really had been such a group, then it must have had included Augustus, Agrippa and his sons, pretendents to the throne and other members of imperial family. Main group, which was probably inaugurated by the patron of Aenona Lucius Volusius Saturninus, dates at the end of rule of Tiberius. It contained statue of divine Augustus, Tiberius and most probably his heirs (Germanicus and Drusus the Younger along with their sons). Portraits of Caligula and Claudius were also identified; probably semi-naked statue in divine clothes was Caesar himself. Construction of the hexastyle temple during the rule of the Flavian dynasty followed as well as expansion of the former group of imperial portraits. Heads of emperors Vespasian and Nerva (made from the portrait of Domitian) were found too.